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Table 2 Cytokines and Chemokines in response to parasite antigens

From: Cytokine and chemokine responses to helminth and protozoan parasites and to fungus and mite allergens in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly

Cytokine/chemokine Study group Base Eh Pf
IL-19 Neonates 137 (0/301) 240 (77/404) 271 (9/449)
  Children 204 (81/327) 382 (229/535) 189 (36/341)
  Adults 244 (114/375) 692 * (507/877) 370 (186/555)
  Elderly 257 (128/386) 726 * (544/909) 319 (137/502)
IL-27 Neonates 425 (307/542) 495 (378/612) 518 (393/642)
  Children 557 (429/686) 666 (513/820) 501 (340/661)
  Adults 719 (503/935) 1004 (699/1309) 886 (581/1191)
  Elderly 1050 (898/1202) 951 (738/1164) 932 (737/1128)
IL-33 Neonates 52 (17/86) 67 (31/104) 32 (0/71)
  Children 22 (0/110) 107 (2/212) 14 (0/123)
  Adults 29 (5/54) 51 (16/87) 52 (28/77)
  Elderly 45 (28/62) 76 (26/125) 62 (36/88)
MCP-4/ CCL13 Neonates 69 (40/99) 56 (26/86) 51 (19/82)
  Children 180 (120/240) 54 (0/126) 85 (40/130)
  Adults 129 (84/175) 14 (8/20) 135 (88/183)
  Elderly 124 (85/163) 12 (0/67) 133 (78/188)
Eotaxin-2/ CCL24 Neonates 537 (337/738) 540 (340/741) 419 (205/632)
  Children 358 (264/454) 319 (201/438) 360 (235/486)
  Adults 1398 (1223/1572) 544 **(297/790) 1762 (1515/2008)
  Elderly 1430 (1262/1598) 340 *** (102/577) 1405 (1168/1643)
MIP-1delta/ CCL15 Neonates 63 (47/79) 68 (52/83) 64 (47/80)
  Children 46 (41/62) 56 (43/68) 41 (28/55)
  Adults 19 (12/29) 35 (24/46) 24 (13/34)
  Elderly 27 (16/37) 63 ** (49/78) 26 (12/41)
  1. The cellular production of interleukin (IL)-19, IL-27, IL-33, MCP-4/CC13, MIP-1delta/CCL15 and Eotaxin-2/CCL24 in response to parasite antigens by umbilical cord blood cells (UCBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from different age groups is shown. UCBC from neonates (n=36) and PBMC were isolated from children (age 10-13 years; n=35), adults (18-45 years, n=39) and the elderly (50-80 years, n=42), and stimulated E. histolytica antigen (Eh; 10 μg/ml), P. falciparum antigen (Pf; 1x108 schizonts/ml) or not stimulated (Base), for 48 hours at 37%, 5% CO2 and saturated humidity. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in cell culture supernatant were determined by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data are given as means with the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals (in brackets). (* p<0.05, ** p<0.01 ***p<0.001, compared to Base).