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Table 1 Frequencies for pathogens and the associations between the different pathogens, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and frailty

From: Association of cytomegalovirus and other pathogens with frailty and diabetes mellitus, but not with cardiovascular disease and mortality in psycho-geriatric patients; a prospective cohort study

Serology test Range of test Median (IQR) Total DM+ CVD+ Frail+
  (U/ml) Titer (U/ml) number(%) (n = 59) (n = 143) (n = 131)
HSV a IgG positive 30-2000 437 (389–484) 275 (93%) 57 (97%) 133 (93%) 122 (93%)
HSV a IgG negative   - 20 (7%) 2 (3%) 10 (7%) 9 (7%)
VZV a IgG positive 100-2000 994 (612–1403) 292 (99%) 59 (100%) 141 (99%) 128 (98%)
VZV a IgG negative   - 3 (1%) 0 (0%) 2 (1%) 3 (2%)
EBV a IgG positive 11-200 200 (130–200) 291 (99)% 58 (98%) 141 (99%) 128 (98%)
EBV a IgG negative   - 4 (1%) 1 (2%) 2 (1%) 3 (2%)
CMV a IgG positive    226 (77%) 46 (78%) 115 (80%) 108 (82%)b
AxSYM 15-250 250 (192–250)     
DSXTM 40-2000 373 (290–463)     
CMV a IgG negative   - 69 (23%) 13 (22%) 28 (20%) 23 (18%)b
HHV6 a IgG positive >1.1 1.67 (1.37-2.34) 193 (65%) 45 (76%)c 97 (68%) 90 (69%)
HHV6 a IgG negative   - 102 (35%) 14 (24%)c 46 (32%) 41 (31%)
CP a IgG positive 45-270 81 (59–116) 150 (51%) 28 (47%) 74 (52%) 68 (52%)
CP a IgG negative   - 144 (49%) 31 (53%) 69 (48%) 63 (48%)
HP a IgG positive 20-650 97 (36–211) 173 (59%) 32 (54%) 82 (47%) 77 (59%)
HP a IgG negative   - 121 (41%) 27 (46%) 61 (43%) 54 (41%)
Pathogen burden d   -     
Pathogen burden ≤ 4    53 (18%) 9 (15%) 25 (18%) 18 (14%)
Pathogen burden = 5   - 95 (32%) 18 (31%) 46 (32%) 44 (33%)
Pathogen burden = 6   - 103 (35%) 23 (39%) 46 (32%) 48 (37%)
Pathogen burden = 7   - 44 (15%) 9 (15%) 26 (18%) 21 (16%)
  1. aHSV: herpes simplex virus, VZV: varicella zoster virus, CMV: cytomegalovirus, EBV: Epstein-Barr virus, HHV6: human herpes virus type 6, CP: Chlamydia pneumonia, HP: Helicobacter pylori.
  2. bRR 1.4 (95% CI: 1.003-2.16).
  3. cRR 1.7 (95% CI: 0.96-3.13).
  4. dPathogen burden: number of IgG seropositive pathogens (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV6, CP, HP).