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Table 3 Distribution of inflammatory markers of study population in rural and in urban areas in 2008/2009

From: Air pollution and subclinical airway inflammation in the SALIA cohort study

  Total area Rural area Urban area p-Valueb
  Geometric mean (gsd)a N Geometric mean (gsd)a N Geometric mean (gsd)a N  
Markers in exhaled breath condensate        
pH 7.1 (1.1) 381 7.1 (1.1) 185 7.1 (1.1) 196 0.854
NO derivatives [μM] 6.3 (1.8) 384 6.0 (1.8) 186 6.6 (1.9) 198 0.1379
LTB4 [pg/ml]e 8.9 (1.4) 372 8.7 (1.4) 181 9.0 (1.4) 191 0.2522
8-iso-PGF 2 α [pg/ml] 111 (1.9) 363 112 (1.9) 175 110 (2.0) 188 0.8583
Soluble markers in induced sputum        
Total protein content [μg/ml] 207 (2.1) 324 196 (2.1) 160 219 (2.0) 164 0.1687
IL-8 [pg/ml]c 974 (3.1) 318 991 (3.2) 158 959 (3.0) 160 0.7991
NO derivatives [μM] 14.0 (2.2) 324 12.5 (1.9) 160 15.8 (2.4) 164 0.0072
IL-1β [pg/ml] 15.1 (2.9) 320 15.8 (3.1) 159 14.5 (2.7) 161 0.5007
TNF-α [pg/ml] 1.8 (2.0) 320 1.6 (2.0) 158 2.0 (2.0) 162 0.0067
LTB4 [pg/ml] 642 (2.2) 324 608 (2.1) 160 679 (2.2) 164 0.1988
MMP-9 [ng/ml]d 94.0 (4.5) 279 84.0 (4.9) 135 104 (4.2) 144 0.2431
Cells in induced sputum        
Total number of cells (x105) 14.5 (2.7) 324 13.0 (2.7) 160 16.2 (2.6) 164 0.0433
Macrophagese 0.1 (19.2) 321 0.1 (18.3) 158 0.1 (20.3) 163 0.4582
Neutrophils (x104)f 15.6 (6.2) 321 12.2 (6.4) 158 19.8 (5.9) 163 0.0175
Eosinophilse 0.03 (9.1) 321 0.03 (8.0) 158 0.04 (10.1) 163 0.3601
  1. aGeometric standard deviation, bp-Value of t-test for the difference of geometric means between rural and urban area, cValues > 20000 set to 20000, dValues <2 set to 2, eTransformed to binary variables because for LTB4 in EBC 83.3% of the values were below the detection limit and for macrophages 56% and for eosinophils 77% of the values were equal to zero, fValues > 5x106 set to 5x106; Values < 1 set to 1 for the log-transformation.