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Table 2 Plasma retinoic acid and retinol concentrations at basal state (T0) and after supplementation with 13-cis-retinoic acid (T1)

From: Neutrophils are immune cells preferentially targeted by retinoic acid in elderly subjects

  Young adults Elderly ANOVA
  T0 T1 T0 T1  
13-cis-retinoic acid (mg/l) 1.30 ± 0.08 202.61 ± 20 1.43 ± 0.07 149.95 ± 8.7 A, N, I
Retinol (μM) 2.76 ± 0.11 2.53 ± 0.09 3.14 ± 0.13 3.12 ± 0.15 A
  1. X ± SEM; n = 20 subjects per group. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to discriminate among the effects of age (A; p < 0.05), nutritional treatment (N; p < 0.05) and their interaction (I; p < 0.05).
  2. For retinol, no significant interaction was found, and so comparison of marginal means was carried out, which indicated a significant effect of age (young: 2.64 ± 0.07 μM vs elderly: 3.13 ± 0.09 μM).