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Table 3 Lymphocyte distribution at basal state (T 0 ) and after supplementation with 13-cis-retinoic acid (T 1 )

From: Neutrophils are immune cells preferentially targeted by retinoic acid in elderly subjects

  Young adults Elderly  
  T0 T1 T0 T1 ANOVA
T Lymphocytes    ±   
109/L 1.56 ± 0.14 1.35 ± 0.09 0.99 ± 0.09 1.47 ± 0.45 -
% 68.1 ± 1.6 69.2 ± 1.3 64.7 ± 2.1 67.4 ± 1.7 -
B Lymphocytes      
109/L 0.29 ± 0.04 0.26 ± 0.03 0.16 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.04 A
% 11.9 ± 0.9 12.6 ± 1.0 9.9 ± 0.8 11.2 ± 0.9 -
NK Lymphocytes      
109/L 0.48 ± 0.06 0.33 ± 0.04 0.34 ± 0.04 0.38 ± 0.06 -
% 18.9 ± 1.8 15.8 ± 1.5 23.1 ± 22 21.0 ± 1.8 A
  1. X ± SEM; n = 20 subjects per group. Lymphocytes are expressed both as percentages of the total lymphocyte number and as absolute values. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to discriminate among the effects of age (A; p < 0.05), nutritional treatment (N; p < 0.05) and their interaction (I; p < 0.05).
  2. As no significant interaction was found, comparison of marginal means was carried out, which indicated a significant effect of age on the absolute number (in 109/L) of B lymphocytes (young: 0.276 ± 0.032 vs elderly: 0.186 ± 0.032) and on percentage of NK lymphocytes (young: 17.35 ± 1.69 vs elderly: 22.08 ± 1.97).