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Table 4 Naïve and memory T4 lymphocyte distribution at basal state (T 0 ) and after supplementation with 13-cis-retinoic acid (T 1 )

From: Neutrophils are immune cells preferentially targeted by retinoic acid in elderly subjects

  Young adults Elderly  
  T0 T1 T0 T1 ANOVA
CD4-CD45RO+      
% 31.2 ± 1.74 29.36 ± 1.26 34.24 ± 1.81 35.88 ± 1.88 A
109/L 0.751 ± 0.074 0.582 ± 0.052 0.527 ± 0.042 0.785 ± O.235 -
CD4-CD45RA+      
% 25.87 ± 1.70 24.32 ± 1.35 13.80 ± 1.92 15.18 ± 1.633 A
109/L 0.620 ± 0.064 0.468 ± 0.222 0.219 ± 0.036 0.309 ± 0.078 A
  1. X ± SEM; n = 20 subjects per group. Lymphocytes are expressed both as percentages of lymphocyte number and as absolute values. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to discriminate among the effects of age (A; p < 0.05), nutritional treatment (N; p < 0.05) and their interaction (I; p < 0.05).
  2. As no significant interaction was found, comparison of marginal means was carried out, which indicated a significant effect of age on the absolute number (in 109/L) of CD4-CD45RA (young: 0.54 ± 0.04 vs elderly: 0.26 ± 0.04) and on percentage of CD4-CD45RA (young: 24.9 ± 1.1 vs elderly: 14.5 ± 1.3) and CD4-CD45RO (young: 30.5 ± 1.1: vs elderly: 35.1 ± 1.3).