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Figure 4 | Immunity & Ageing

Figure 4

From: The discovery of how gender influences age immunological mechanisms in health and disease, and the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and ultimately improve therapeutic success rates

Figure 4

Gender specific ageing variations in cytokine network relationships between pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines could influence the success of the immune response. The study results indicate that variations in specific cytokine network relationships, between pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, regulate immune response homeostasis in healthy state. The early evolution of immune response is controlled by the positive inter-regulation between production of IFNγ-IL10 and IL6-IL4 cytokines in men, and the negative inter-regulation of IL6-IL10 cytokines in women. Similarly, the late evolution of immune response seems to be regulated by the positive inter-regulation between the production of IFN γ-IL4 in men and by IL6-IFN γ in women. The principal component analysis has shown that these gender specific cytokine network relationships suffering changes during ageing, which could adversely affect the success of the immune response. Consequently, these cytokine relationships are dual gender specific biomarkers that could well be used to develop more specific approaches in the elderly population.

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