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Table 4 Relationship between plasma cytokine levels and age in rhesus macaques

From: Immune correlates of aging in outdoor-housed captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Category cytokine All animals Mean concentration ± st. dev. (pg/ml) P b
Correlation coefficient ( r )a P Younger group (2–9 years) Middle group (10–17 years) Older group (18–24 years)
Pro-inflammatory / Th1 induction:
IFN-γ 0.2569 0.0085 27.29 ± 24.40 26.59 ± 24.09 59.99 ± 107.04 n.s.c
IL-1β 0.2704 0.0055 10.06 ± 14.18 10.19 ± 15.57 16.67 ± 18.18 0.0457
IL-6 0.2163 0.0290 2.89 ± 3.69 3.42 ± 3.94 6.18 ± 11.31 n.s.
IL-12/IL-23 (p40) 0.3004 0.0019 240.91 ± 335.77 245.70 ± 339.13 443.50 ± 564.21 0.0492
IL-15 0.2792 0.0045 11.25 ± 9.05 11.55 ± 8.80 16.05 ± 13.57 n.s.
IL-17 0.0281 n.s. 2.81 ± 5.72 2.15 ± 5.20 2.97 ± 12.88 n.s.
MIF 0.5151 0.0036 130.19 ± 61.89 371.06 ± 293.29 624.15 ± 598.64 n.s.
sCD40L 0.3621 0.0016 2,731.76 ± 4,072.20 2,644.32 ± 3,646.08 5,874.23 ± 4,435.26 0.0025
TNF-α 0.3407 0.0004 28.40 ± 35.51 30.71 ± 42.78 62.28 ± 62.43 0.0376
Chemokines:
Eotaxin (CCL11) 0.1865 n.s. 441.49 ± 92.46 738.88 ± 345.51 635.78 ± 370.24 n.s.
IL-8 (CXCL8) 0.2165 0.0280 1,273.54 ± 2,115.97 1,538.39 ± 2,287.07 3,970.65 ± 7,165.05 0.0345
I-TAC (CXCL11) −0.0762 n.s. 111.86 ± 241.19 140.35 ± 198.89 92.71 ± 116.12 n.s.
MCP-1 (CCL2) 0.2644 0.0067 318.35 ± 176.44 338.75 ± 236.98 400.60 ± 190.78 0.0270
MDC (CCL22) 0.1279 n.s. 934.06 ± 626.64 1,657.17 ± 729.31 1,220.65 ± 1,113.48 n.s.
MIG (CXCL9) −0.4799 0.0073 112.82 ± 24.23 120.31 ± 22.89 83.66 ± 13.81 0.0019
MIP-1α (CCL3L1) 0.2877 0.0031 23.64 ± 20.58 25.07 ± 22.63 36.69 ± 33.56 0.0466
MIP-1β (CCL4) 0.0786 0.0108 19.84 ± 19.56 15.33 ± 15.74 24.78 ± 37.63 n.s.
RANTES (CCL5) 0.2065 n.s. 16,617.28 ± 8,693.23 43,928.17 ± 61,521.00 38,343.38 ± 56,904.69 n.s.
Growth factors:
EGF 0.6582 < 0.0001 33.80 ± 6.86 85.33 ± 126.15 321.85 ± 148.42 <0.0001
FGF-basic 0.4038 0.0269 13.24 ± 2.59 13.85 ± 2.14 20.05 ± 8.54 n.s.
G-CSF 0.3179 0.0011 73.69 ± 94.41 77.18 ± 94.45 115.94 ± 111.56 0.0258
GM-CSF 0.0162 n.s. 83.77 ± 247.97 93.94 ± 273.92 74.80 ± 210.17 n.s.
HGF 0.1149 n.s. 107.24 ± 23.63 148.00 ± 73.14 136.17 ± 107.81 n.s.
IL-2 0.4062 < 0.0001 75.93 ± 84.58 87.88 ± 72.09 162.49 ± 131.83 0.0004
TGF-α 0.2533 0.0318 9.28 ± 7.64 7.50 ± 6.30 13.75 ± 8.05 0.0258
TGF-β1 0.1896 n.s. 17,577.10 ± 7,978.62 16,257.61 ± 7,884.94 22,025.53 ± 8,156.91 n.s.
TGF-β2 0.1043 n.s. 2,252.57 ± 1,121.62 2,113.75 ± 1,141.93 2,493.74 ± 847.81 n.s.
TGF-β3 −0.3218 0.0457 27.66 ± 13.09 17.57 ± 9.15 19.46 ± 9.79 n.s.
VEGF 0.0380 n.s. 91.90 ± 164.42 77.34 ± 158.25 105.50 ± 169.99 n.s.
Anti-inflammatory / B cell and Th2 induction:
IL-1ra 0.3533 0.0002 195.35 ± 393.17 212.41 ± 352.53 466.24 ± 559.77 0.0126
IL-4 0.3496 0.0003 73.18 ± 144.16 86.82 ± 157.78 170.45 ± 197.72 0.0120
IL-5 −0.3003 0.0022 4.45 ± 5.63 3.28 ± 4.46 1.51 ± 2.37 0.0021
IL-10 0.1017 n.s. 4.60 ± 4.33 5.73 ± 9.92 6.35 ± 9.52 n.s.
IL-13 0.2172 n.s. 2.37 ± 1.96 3.76 ± 4.62 4.05 ± 6.28 n.s.
  1. a Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for each circulating cytokine concentration over age of the rhesus macaques. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
  2. b Means of circulating cyotokine concentration were calculated for the three age groups of rhesus macaques. Student’s t Test was measured to determine statistically significant differences between the older and younger groups of animals. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
  3. c n.s.; not significant.