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Table 1 The research application of the most common invertebrate models used for AD

From: Simple model systems: a challenge for Alzheimer's disease

Caenorhabditis elegans Roundworm Localization of amyloid deposit
Effect of aging on the size of amyloid plaques
Aβ toxicity and behaviour correlation
Effect of dietary deprivation in AD
Danio rerio Zebrafish Studies on NTF and amyloid plaques
Toxicity of Aβ peptide
Mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes
Drug screening
Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly Assessment of modulators of BACE1 or APP metabolism
Localization of Aβ peptide
Role of tau protein in AD
Ciona intestinalis Ascidian APP processing
Study on familial AD
Drug screening
Paracentrotus lividus Rock sea urchin Relationship between different Aβ aggregation forms and toxicity
Different activation of Apoptotic pathways
Sphaerechinus granularis Violet sea urchin Neuroprotective effect of neurotransmitters
Developmental abnormalities due to Aβ peptide administration