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Table 3 Percent impact of 5-year lifestyle on 5-year suPAR

From: Healthy lifestyles reduce suPAR and mortality in a Danish general population study

  5-year follow-up
  Model 1 Model 2
  % more suPAR5 95% CI % more suPAR5 95% CI
Demographics
 Age, men (per 5 years) 2.9*** (2.0–3.8) 3.1*** (2.3–4.0)
 Age, women (per 5 years) 0.2 (−0.6–1.1) 0.7 (−0.09–1.6)
 Female sex (vs. male sex) 6.9*** (4.8–9.0) 8.0*** (5.9–10.2)
Lifestyle
 Diet (vs. healthy)
  Unhealthy 11.3*** (7.2–15.5) 5.9** (2.0–10.0)
  Average 3.8** (1.5–6.1) 1.9 (−0.3–4.2)
Smoking baseline➔5-years (vs. never➔never)
 Daily
  ➔Daily 18.8*** (15.7–21.9) 17.6*** (14.5–20.8)
  ➔Occasional 3.1 (−5.8–12.9) 4.3 (−4.8–14.1)
  ➔Quit −3.1 (−6.6–0.5) −3.0 (−6.5–0.7)
 Never/former/occasional
  ➔Daily 10.2** (3.2–17.7) 8.7* (1.8–16.1)
  ➔Occasional −3.5 (−9.1–2.4) −3.6 (−9.2–2.3)
  ➔Former −1.4 (− 3.7–0.9) −1.3 (−3.5–1.1)
  ➔Quit 4.6 (−4.4–14.5) 5.9 (−3.2–16.0)
Physical activity (vs. high activity)
 Low activity 17.5** (7.0–29.0) 12.8** (3.1–23.5)
 Light activity 11.4* (1.8–22.0) 8.8 (−0.4–18.9)
 Moderate activity 9.2 (−0.4–19.7) 7.7 (−1.5–17.8)
Alcohol intake, men (vs. recommended)
 Abstinent 0.7 (− 4.9–6.6) −1.0 (− 6.4–4.7)
 Overuse 4.2* (0.6–7.8) 2.7 (−0.8–6.2)
Alcohol intake, women (vs. recommended)
 Abstinent 7.1** (2.5–11.9) 6.6* (2.1–11.3)
 Overuse 1.5 (−3.0–6.3) −0.9 (− 5.2–3.7)
  1. The effect of lifestyle on suPAR5 adjusted for suPAR0
  2. Model 1: log2(suPAR5) ~ age, sex, log2(suPAR0) + one lifestyle factor per line (n = 3069–3225)
  3. Model 2: log2(suPAR5) ~ age, sex, log2(suPAR0), intervention intensity, diet, smoking, and physical activity (n = 3166, R2 = 0.326). For categorical variables, the parenthesis indicates the reference value. Model 2 with alcohol was run separately because of missing observations (n = 3044, R2 = 0.331)
  4. ➔: indicates the interaction between baseline and 5-year smoking habits, e.g. never (baseline)➔never (5-year). The horizontal line indicates the split between Model 2 without (above) and with (below) alcohol habits. *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.001. Abbreviations: CI: confidence interval; suPAR0: baseline suPAR; suPAR5: 5-year suPAR