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Table 1 Most common secondary conditions associated with different types of AIHA [5,6,7]

From: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: current knowledge and perspectives

Type of AIHA Etiology
Warm AIHA Hematologic disorders and lymphoproliferative diseases (CLL, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma)
Solid malignancy (thymoma, ovarian or prostate carcinoma)
Autoimmune diseases (SLE, Sjögren syndrome, sytemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis ulcerosa, PBC)
Viral infections (HCV, HIV, VZV, CMV, SARS-CoV-2)
Bacterial infections (tuberculosisis, pneumococcal infections)
Leishmania parasites
Bone marrow or solid-organ transplantation
Primary immune deficiency syndromes (CVID, ALPS)
Sarcoidosis
CAD Lymphoproliferative diseases (Waldenström macroglobulinemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma)
Solid malignancy
Infections (parvovirus B19, Mycoplasma sp., EBV, adenovirus, influenza virus, VZV infections and syphilis)
Autoimmune disease
Post-allogeneic HSCT
PCH Bacterial infections (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli infections and syphilis)
Viral infections (adenovirus, influenza A virus, VZV infection; mumps, measles)
Myeloproliferative disorders
Mixed AIHA Lymphoma
SLE
Infection
DIIHA Antibiotics (cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, cotrimoxazole)
Antiviral drugs: HAART
Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (nivolumab, pembrolizumab)
Chemotherapy (carboplatin, oxaliplatin)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac)
Others: methyldopa
  1. AIHA autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, ALPS autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, anti-PD-1 anti programmed death-1, CAD cold agglutinin disease, CLL chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, CMV cytomegalovirus, CVID common variable immunodeficiency, DIIHA drug-induced immune hemolytic anaemia, EBV epstein-barr virus, HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, HCV hepatitis C, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HSCT haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, PBC primary biliary cirrhosis, PCH paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria, SLE systematic lupus erytremathosus, VZV varicella zoster virus