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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics of participants

From: CMV infection, CD19+ B cell depletion, and Lymphopenia as predictors for unexpected admission in the institutionalized elderly

Demographic and clinical characteristics Participants
N = 163 (100%)
Age, years 87.3 (83.1–90.2)
Male gender (%) 144 (88.3%)
Follow-up duration, weeks 156.4 (136.9–156.4)
Move out from retirement communities 5 (3.1%)
Unexpected admission rate (%) 90 (55.2%)
 Infectious diseases-related (%) 52 (57.7%)
 Cardiovascular diseases-related (%) 11 (12.2%)
 Others (%) 27 (30%)
Mortality rate (%) 40 (24.5%)
 Infectious diseases-related (%) 15 (37.5%)
 Cardiovascular diseases-related (%) 7 (17.5%)
 Others 18 (45%)
Body mass index, kgs/m2 24.2 (21.1–26)
Cigarette Smoking
 Ex-smoker (%) 17 (10.4%)
 Active smoker (%) 20 (12.3%)
Alcohol consumption
 Ex-drinker (%) 10 (6.1%)
 Active drinker (%) 28 (17.2%)
Education
  < 6 years (%) 53 (32.5%)
 6–9 years (%) 51 (31.3%)
  > 9 years (%) 48 (29.4%)
Flu vaccine uptake (%) 109 (66.9%)
Underlying diseases
 Cerebrovascular disease (%) 9 (5.5%)
 Chronic liver disease (%) 2 (1.2%)
 Chronic kidney disease (%) 4 (2.5%)
 Chronic lung disease (%) 24 (14.7%)
 Congestive heart failure (%) 7 (4.3%)
 Dementia (%) 7 (4.3%)
 Depression (%) 8 (4.9%)
 Diabetes mellitus (%) 45 (27.6%)
 Hypertension (%) 118 (72.4%)
 Peptic ulcer disease (%) 26 (16%)
 Peripheral arterial disease (%) 32 (19.6%)
 Malignancy (%) 11 (6.7%)
Charlson comorbidity index 1 (0–2)
Geriatric syndromes
 Physical function by BI score 95 (90–100)
 Risk of falls by JHFRAT score 12 (10–16)
 Polypharmacy (%) 83 (50.9%)
 Types of medicine 5 (3–6)
 Cognition by MMSE score 26 (23–29)
 Depression by GDS-5 score 0 (0–1)
 Malnutrition by MUST score 0 (0–0)
 Visual impairment (%) 52 (31.9%)
 Hearing impairment (%) 27 (16.6%)
 Sleep disorder (%) 46 (28.2%)
 Use of hypnotic agents (%) 36 (22.1%)
 Constipation (%) 44 (27%)
 Stool incontinence (%) 3 (1.8%)
 Urinary incontinence (%) 5 (3.1%)
Laboratory tests
 White blood cell count, cells/cumm 5900 (4900- 6700)
 Hemoglobin, gm/dL 12.7 (11.6–13.6)
 Platelet count, ×1,000 cells/cumm 180.5 (148.7–221)
 Neutrophil count, cells/cumm 3157 (2472- 3914)
 Lymphocyte count, cells/cumm 1800 (1500- 2300)
 CD3+ T cell count, cells/cumm 1136 (903–1526)
 CD4+ T cell count, cells/cumm 718 (557–926)
 CD8+ T cell count, cells/cumm 390 (262–576)
 CD19+ B cell count, cells/cumm 135 (81–205)
 CD4+/CD8+ 1.81 (1.25–2.54)
 Albumin, gm/dL 4 (3.8–4.2)
 Cholesterol, mg/dL 163 (141–188)
 Triglyceride, mg/dL 87 (62–122)
 HDL-C, mg/dL 48 (36–57)
 LDL-C, mg/dL 97 (77–117)
 BUN, mg/dL 19.5 (16–25)
 Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.96 (0.79–1.24)
 Aspartate amonitransferase, U/L 21 (17–25)
 hs-CRP, mg/dL 0.14 (0.08–0.32)
 Lymphopenia (%) 12 (7.4%)
 CD4+/CD8+ < 1 18 (11%)
Chronic infection
 CMV seropositivity (%) 162 (99.4%)
 VZV seropositivity (%) 150 (92%)
 HBsAg seropositivity (%) 93 (57.1%)
 HCV seropositivity (%) 12 (7.4%)
Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity (%) 138 (84.7%)
 CMV IgG, IU/mL 236.8 (174.1–722.1)
 VZV IgG, S/CO 3.46 (2.51–4.7)
 HBsAg IgG, mIU/mL 17 (3.8–50.8)
 HCV IgG, S/CO 0.07 (0.05–0.1)
Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG, S/CO 1.49 (1.28–1.63)
  1. Abbreviations: BI Barthel index, CD cluster of differentiation, CMV Cytomegalovirus, GDS-5 Geriatric Depression Scale-5 items, HBsAg hepatitis B virus surface antigen, HCV hepatitis C virus, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hs-CRP highly sensitive C reactive protein, IgG Immunoglobulin G, JHFRAT John Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool, LDL-C Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, MMSE Mini-Mental Status Examination, MUST Malnutrition Universal Screening Test, VZV Varicella zoster virus