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Table 3 Challenges of vaccine development for older adults

From: Vaccination of older adults: Influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, COVID-19 and beyond

Limitations of current vaccines for older adults

• Age-dependent decline of immunogenicity and clinical effectiveness of several vaccines

• Potentially more rapid waning of immune responses and protection with age

• Lack of vaccines for relevant pathogens

• Unsatisfactory vaccination coverage

Strategies to overcome these limitations

• Modification of vaccines (e.g. higher antigen dose, adjuvants)

• Optimization of vaccination schedules

• Improved vaccination documentation and access to vaccination

Remaining challenges

• Development of universal influenza and pneumococcal vaccines

• Development of vaccines against nosocomial and other relevant pathogens

• Rational design of vaccines to specifically overcome age-related immunological limitations