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Table 1 A cohort of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19

From: Association between inflammatory cytokines and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Characteristics Total
(N = 272)
Patients aged < 65 y
(N = 132)
Patients aged ≥ 65 y
(N = 140)
P-value*
Moderate
(N = 95)
Severe
(N = 37)
Moderate
(N = 78)
Severe
(N = 62)
Male gender 139 (51.1%) 36 (37.9%) 25 (67.6%) 39 (50%) 39 (63%) 0.003
Age (years) 65 (56–72) 54 (43–60) 57 (50–62) 70 (68–75) 72 (69–78) <  0.01
Baseline symptoms
 Fever 232 (85.3%) 83 (87.4%) 29 (78.4%) 67 (85.9%) 53 (85.5%) 0.62
 Cough 169 (62.1%) 57 (60.0%) 24 (64.9%) 49 (62.8%) 39 (62.9%) 0.95
 Fatigue 103 (37.9%) 33 (34.7%) 16 (43.2%) 25 (32.1%) 29 (46.8%) 0.25
 Shortness of breath 91 (33.5%) 27 (28.4%) 16 (43.2%) 21 (26.9%) 27 (43.5%) 0.07
 Chills 72 (26.5%) 24 (25.3%) 10 (27.0%) 18 (23.1%) 20 (32.3%) 0.67
 Diarrhea 71 (26.1%) 25 (26.3%) 9 (24.3%) 19 (24.4%) 18 (29.0%) 0.93
 Myalgia 63 (23.2%) 24 (25.3%) 10 (27.0%) 15 (19.2%) 14 (22.6%) 0.74
 Headache 35 (12.9%) 15 (15.8%) 5 (13.5%) 6 (7.7%) 9 (14.5%) 0.43
 Nausea 30 (11.0%) 12 (12.6%) 5 (13.5%) 6 (7.7%) 7 (11.3%) 0.71
 Vomit 18 (6.6%) 6 (6.3%) 2 (5.4%) 4 (5.1%) 6 (9.7%) 0.72
 Abdominal pain 11 (4.0%) 5 (5.3%) 1 (2.7%) 3 (3.8%) 2 (3.2%) 0.88
 Blood cough 5 (1.8%) 1 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.3%) 3 (4.8%) 0.36
Baseline comorbidity
 Hypertension 114 (41.9%) 21 (22.1%) 16 (43.2%) 42 (53.8%) 35 (56.5%) <  0.01
 Diabetes mellitus 71 (26.1%) 18 (18.9%) 9 (24.3%) 20 (25.6%) 24 (38.7%) 0.05
 Cardiovascular disease 22 (8.1%) 2 (2.1%) 1 (2.7%) 10 (12.8%) 9 (14.5%) 0.008
 Cancer 13 (4.8%) 4 (4.2%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (7.7%) 3 (4.8%) 0.34
 Cerebrovascular disease 10 (3.7%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (2.7%) 3 (3.8%) 5 (8.1%) 0.15
 Chronic bronchitis 8 (2.9%) 2 (2.1%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (3.8%) 3 (4.8%) 0.50
 Cholecystitis 3 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (2.6%) 1 (1.6%) 0.44
 COPD# 2 (0.7%) 1 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.6%) 0.65
Comorbidity count       <  0.01
 0 108 (40%) 62 (65%) 15 (40%) 18 (23%) 13 (21%)  
 1 95 (35%) 18 (19%) 17 (46%) 35 (45%) 25 (40%)  
 2 46 (17%) 12 (13%) 4 (11%) 17 (22%) 13 (21%)  
 ≥3 23 (8%) 3 (3%) 1 (3%) 8 (10%) 11 (18%)  
Clinical outcome
 Death 42 (15.4%) 2 (2.2%) 11 (29.7%) 1 (1.3%) 28 (45.2%) <  0.01
 Length of hospital stay (days) 21 (12–29) 17 (10–23) 19 (13–31) 23 (18–33) 25 (10–33) <  0.01
  1. *: P-values were measured by multigroup tests of variables in four patient groups (discrete variables: chi-squared tests, continuous variables: Kruskal-Wallis tests)
  2. #: COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease