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Table 2 Risk factors associated with the clinical outcome (death or hospital discharge) of COVID-19 patients using Cox proportional hazards models

From: Association between inflammatory cytokines and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

  Univariate analysis* Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
Male gender 2.23 (1.60 to 3.12) 0.016   
Patient age & 1.05 (1.03 to 1.06) 9.8 × 10−4 1.07 (1.04 to 1.09) 0.002
Baseline disease severity 24.2 (13.3 to 44.1) 1.1 × 10−7 38.0 (12.9 to 111.3) 7 × 10− 4
Baseline symptoms
 Fatigue 2.02 (1.48 to 2.75) 0.023   
Baseline comorbidity
 Cardiovascular disease 2.33 (1.54 to 3.53) 0.041   
Blood routine biomarkers
 White blood cells 1.18 (1.15 to 1.21) 3 × 10−10   
 Neutrophils 1.14 (1.11 to 1.16) 2.2 × 10−9   
 Lymphocytes 0.03 (0.02 to 0.06) 6 × 10− 10   
Coagulation biomarkers
 D-dimer 1.10 (1.08 to 1.12) 5.4 × 10−8 1.09 (1.06 to 1.13) 0.006
 Prothrombin time 1.57 (1.43 to 1.72) 9.6 × 10−7   
Biochemistry biomarkers
 Albumin 0.85 (0.82 to 0.87) 4.8 × 10−4   
 Aspartate aminotransferase 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) 6.2 × 10− 4   
 Total cholesterol 0.56 (0.46 to 0.67) 0.0017   
 Total bilirubin 1.08 (1.06 to 1.11) 0.0001   
 Blood urea nitrogen 1.15 (1.12 to 1.17) 8.3 × 10−3   
 Creatinine 1.02 (1.01 to 1.02) 6.3 × 10−5   
Cardiac biomarkers
 Troponin I 1.03 (1.02 to 1.03) 5 × 10−3   
 Myocardial creatine kinase 1.38 (1.29 to 1.49) 7.6 × 10−6   
Inflammatory biomarkers
 C-reactive protein 1.01 (1.01 to 1.01) 5.9 × 10−9   
 Procalcitonin 8.38 (5.56 to 12.6) 2.2 × 10−7   
 IL-6 1.11 (1.10 to 1.13) 3 × 10−14 1.12 (1.10 to 1.14) 0.025
 IL-8 1.02 (1.01 to 1.02) 6.2 × 10−7   
 IL-10 1.03 (1.02 to 1.04) 2.7 × 10−4   
 TNF-α 1.04 (1.03 to 1.06) 6.6 × 10−3   
  1. *: A total of 62 biomarkers were tested in our survival analysis and only variables with a significant hazard ratio (HR) at the significance level of p-value < 0.05 are listed in the table
  2. &: Increase per year