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Table 4 The hormesis activity of natural compounds in vitro and in vivo in PD

From: Neurohormetic phytochemicals in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

Activity Compound Source Plant Model Treatment Remarks Reference
Parkinson Resveratrol Ribes nigrum Rat 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg Resveratrol exerts a neuroprotective effect [79]
Resveratrol Ribes nigrum Rat 100 μM Resveratrol exerts a neuroprotective effect [80]
Resveratrol Ribes nigrum Rat 20 mg/kg Resveratrol exerts the protective activity [81]
Epigallocatechin 3-gallate Camellia sinensis Mice 0.1–10 μM Epigallocatechin 3-gallate exerts neuroprotective effects [82]
Caffeine Camellia sinensis Rat 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg The low dose was effective [83]
Caffeine Camellia sinensis Rat 60-80 mg/kg Caffeine exerts protective activity [84]
  Mulberry fruit Morus alba Mouse 500 mg/kg Mulberry fruit exhibits neuroprotective activity [86]
Tubers Dioscorea alata Mouse 100–300 μg/mL The low dose was effective. [88]
Ginsenoside Rg1 Panax ginseng Mouse 10 and 50 μM Ginsenoside Rb1 treats of PD [90]
Quercetin Crocus sativus Rat 50 mg/kg Quercetinexhibits protective activity [91]
Quercetin Crocus sativus Mouse 0.3–30 μM Quercetin improves behavioral deficits [92]
Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropeinaglycone Olea europaea Mouse Hydroxytyrosol (250 μg/mL) oleuropeinaglycone (500 μg/mL) Hydroxytyrosol was more effective [95]
Cannabinoids Cannabis sativa Rat 3 mg/kg Cannabinoids exerts neuroprotection activity [98]
Allicin Allium sativum PC-12 cells 50 μM Allicin exerts protective action [99]
  Curcumin Curcuma longa Rat 40 mg/kg Curcumin exhibits protective activity [100]
Curcumin, naringenin, quercetin and fisetin Curcuma longa, Citrus aurantium, Crocus sativus Rat 50 mg/kg Quercetin and fisetin exhibit neuroprotection effects [101]
Panaxatriol saponins Panax notoginseng PC12 cells 0.12 mg/mL The low dose was effective. [5]
Berberine Berberis vulgaris PC12 cells 0.3-20 μM Berberine improves behavior movement deficiency [103]