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Figure 1 | Immunity & Ageing

Figure 1

From: The discovery of how gender influences age immunological mechanisms in health and disease, and the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and ultimately improve therapeutic success rates

Figure 1

Cytokine regulation of immune response cell phases through gender specific pathways. Antigen presenting cells (APCs) regulate Th cell differentiation and Th cell network homeostasis under resting and activated conditions of the immune system in both men and women, however this effect appears to be exerted through male and female gender-specific health pathways: IL6 pathways regulate the homeostasis of the Th cell network in women, whilst this homeostasis is regulated by IFNγ pathways in men. The study [28] indicates that these regulatory differences do not usually have consequences until IFNγ and/or IL6 cytokine pathway alterations occur, ensuring the same result: a physiological homeostasis between Treg, Th17 and Th9 cells in the resting state, in the transition to the activation phase and in the return to the resting state.

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