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Table. 3 Expression of inflammatory-reparative genes in patients undergoing thermal water nasal inhalation

From: Gene and protein expression of CXCR4 in adult and elderly patients with chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis or sinusitis undergoing thermal water nasal inhalations

  All patients (n = 40)a J30-J31.0 Rhinitis (n = 10) J31.1-J31.2 Pharyngitis (n = 7) J32 Sinusitis (n = 24)
Genes T0 T1   T0 T1   T0 T1   T0 T1  
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD P - valueb Mean ± SD Mean ± SD P - valueb Mean ± SD Mean ± SD P - valueb Mean ± SD Mean ± SD P - valueb
AGER 2.2 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 1.7 NS 2.3 ± 2.4 2.2 ± 2.6 NS 1.5 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 1.0 NS 2.3 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 1.5 NS
CXCR2 1.5 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.2 NS 1.2 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 1.2 NS 1.0 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 0.8 NS 1.7 ± 1.4 1.9 ± 1.3 NS
CXCR4 1.4 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 0.7 < 0.0001c 1.4 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.9 < 0.0001c 1.4 ± 0.5 4.8 ± 0.5 < 0.0001c 1.4 ± 0.9 4.1 ± 0.6 < 0.0001c
FLT1 1.9 ± 1.4 1.4 ± 0.9 0.005 1.9 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 1.0 NS 1.0 ± 1.0 0.7 ± 0.6 NS 2.2 ± 1.5 1.5 ± 0.9 0.004
FUT7 1.1 ± 1.0 1.3 ± 1.6 NS 1.6 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.7 NS 1.1 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 2.6 NS 1.0 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 1.1 NS
HIF1A 3.3 ± 3.3 3.8 ± 2.9 NS 2.2 ± 2.0 2.5 ± 1.9 NS 5.3 ± 4.4 4.6 ± 3.5 NS 3.1 ± 3.1 3.2 ± 2.8 NS
HMGB1 2.3 ± 3.3 2.0 ± 1.9 NS 1.7 ± 1.4 1.6 ± 1.7 NS 1.0 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.7 NS 2.8 ± 4.1 2.5 ± 2.1 NS
ICAM1 2.9 ± 2.6 3.1 ± 3.2 NS 2.1 ± 2.0 2.3 ± 1.9 NS 2.5 ± 2.6 2.7 ± 2.7 NS 3.3 ± 2.8 3.6 ± 3.7 NS
NFKB1 4.4 ± 3.4 4.6 ± 3.0 NS 3.5 ± 2.8 3.4 ± 2.9 NS 6.5 ± 3.8 5.2 ± 2.4 NS 4.1 ± 3.4 4.9 ± 3.1 0.04
P2RX7 3.7 ± 3.4 3.4 ± 3.3 NS 2.9 ± 2.9 2.7 ± 2.7 NS 4.0 ± 3.8 3.2 ± 4.3 NS 3.9 ± 3.5 3.7 ± 3.2 NS
PTX3 3.6 ± 4.4 4.1 ± 4.7 NS 4.3 ± 4.1 4.5 ± 4.1 NS 2.8 ± 3.3 2.7 ± 2.6 NS 3.6 ± 4.8 4.3 ± 5.3 NS
RELA 2.7 ± 2.5 2.7 ± 2.0 NS 4.7 ± 3.3 4.2 ± 2.3 NS 1.3 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 1.4 NS 2.4 ± 2.1 2.6 ± 1.7 NS
SELP 2.5 ± 2.4 2.7 ± 2.0 NS 2.8 ± 2.1 3.2 ± 2.2 NS 1.9 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.6 NS 2.5 ± 2.8 2.6 ± 2.1 NS
SOCS1 3.0 ± 2.6 2.7 ± 2.2 NS 3.1 ± 2.4 2.6 ± 1.9 NS 4.7 ± 3.2 4.0 ± 2.6 NS 2.5 ± 2.3 2.3 ± 2.1 NS
SOD2 1.7 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 3.2 NS 1.1 ± 0.9 1.1 ± 0.8 NS 1.1 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 2.1 0.007 2.1 ± 2.0 2.9 ± 3.8 NS
TLR2 2.5 ± 2.6 3.1 ± 3.9 NS 2.4 ± 3.5 2.0 ± 3.2 NS 2.7 ± 2.6 3.1 ± 3.2 NS 2.4 ± 2.3 3.5 ± 4.3 NS
TLR3 2.4 ± 2.6 2.4 ± 2.6 NS 2.0 ± 1.7 2.7 ± 2.0 NS 2.9 ± 4.0 2.9 ± 3.9 NS 2.5 ± 2.4 2.1 ± 2.3 NS
TLR4 2.2 ± 1.9 2.6 ± 3.2 NS 2.5 ± 1.4 1.6 ± 1.1 0.02 2.8 ± 3.1 2.7 ± 2.6 NS 1.9 ± 1.5 3.0 ± 3.8 NS
VEGFA 1.5 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 2.7 NS 1.9 ± 1.6 2.0 ± 1.7 NS 1.7 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 1.3 NS 1.3 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 3.2 NS
  1. Numbers indicate fold induction of gene expression relative to the reference genes, such as 18S and GAPDH
  2. NS not statistically significant (p > 0.05), SD standard deviation
  3. aFigures do not add up because one patient declared two pathologies simultaneously
  4. bMann-Whitney U Test p-value
  5. cDifference statistically significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons (76 tests, cut-off is ≈ 0.0007)