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Table 2 (a-e) Changes in immunological parameters after NTM048 ingestion

From: Effects of chocolate containing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NTM048 on immune function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Item group pre-ingetion post-ingestion p value
A
immunity score Placebo 17.8 ± 1.9 17.8 ± 2.0 1.000 0.049#
NTM048 17.7 ± 1.9 18.6 ± 1.6 0.015*
B
CD8+ T cells (/μL) Placebo 261 ± 98 264 ± 126 0.859 0.047#
NTM048 234 ± 125 293 ± 196 0.034*
CD8+CD28+ T cells (/μL) Placebo 197 ± 72 197 ± 99 0.981 0.045#
NTM048 152 ± 67 179 ± 71 0.007*
memory T cells (/μL) Placebo 468 ± 122 469 ± 123 0.938 0.022#
NTM048 477 ± 146 543 ± 166 0.006*
C
lymphocytes (/μL) Placebo 1517 ± 283 1574 ± 327 0.238 0.094
NTM048 1549 ± 371 1835 ± 604 0.020*
CD3+ T cells (/μL) Placebo 1113 ± 261 1154 ± 280 0.275 0.083
NTM048 1104 ± 239 1317 ± 507 0.022*
CD4+ T cells (/μL) Placebo 748 ± 219 762 ± 225 0.560 0.094
NTM048 768 ± 243 841 ± 231 0.020*
T-lymphocyte age (years) Placebo 52.6 ± 9.2 52.8 ± 9.9 0.815 0.085
NTM048 55.3 ± 8.8 54.0 ± 9.3 0.025*
Immunological age (years) Placebo 52.5 ± 10.0 50.7 ± 9.4 0.131 0.511
NTM048 52.6 ± 11.5 49.9 ± 12.7 0.009*
D
T cell proliferative activity Placebo 1.38 ± 0.2 1.51 ± 0.2 0.047* 0.804
NTM048 1.46 ± 0.2 1.53 ± 0.2 0.085
T-cells proliferation index (TCPI) Placebo 1.56 ± 0.5 1.77 ± 0.6 0.037* 0.352
NTM048 1.62 ± 0.5 2.01 ± 0.8 0.017*
E
Neutrophils (/μL) Placebo 2976 ± 860 2775 ± 731 0.380 0.941
NTM048 2554 ± 923 2757 ± 816 0.113
Naïve T cells (/μL) Placebo 280 ± 119 293 ± 130 0.265 0.859
NTM048 291 ± 131 298 ± 121 0.714
B cells (/μL) Placebo 230 ± 64 218 ± 65 0.269 0.040#
NTM048 265 ± 134 289 ± 136 0.163
NK cells (/μL) Placebo 166 ± 71 187 ± 70 0.066 0.363
NTM048 200 ± 121 262 ± 258 0.257
CD4/CD8 T cells ratio Placebo 3.47 ± 2.2 4.54 ± 5.2 0.156 0.118
NTM048 5.79 ± 7.6 4.44 ± 4.4 0.139
Naive/Memory T cell ratio Placebo 0.60 ± 0.2 0.63 ± 0.2 0.377 0.166
NTM048 0.63 ± 0.3 0.58 ± 0.2 0.228
immunity grade Placebo 2.80 ± 0.4 2.80 ± 0.5 1.000 0.302
NTM048 2.82 ± 0.4 2.95 ± 0.5 0.186
NK cells activity (%) Placebo 48.0 ± 19.0 46.6 ± 16.6 0.452 0.470
NTM048 48.9 ± 13.4 50.1 ± 16.4 0.754
IFN-γ (pg/mL) Placebo 13.5 ± 41.8 22.3 ± 83.4 0.359 0.345
NTM048 3.12 ± 3.4 3.64 ± 4.1 0.164
  1. Values are mean ± SD
  2. *:p < 0.05, comparison between pre-ingestion and post-ingestion, paired t-test
  3. #:p < 0.05, comparison between groups using Student’s t-test or analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) depending on distribution of data