Skip to main content


Fig. 4 | Immunity & Ageing

Fig. 4

From: Prime-pull vaccination with a plant-derived virus-like particle influenza vaccine elicits a broad immune response and protects aged mice from death and frailty after challenge

Fig. 4

Splenocyte T cells expressing cytokines in response to H1 re-stimulation ex-vivo. Splenocytes were collected 3 weeks post-boost from aged female BALB/c mice (18–22 months of age). Percent of splenocytes a CD4+ T cells and b CD8+ T cells expressing 2 or more cytokines (polyfunctional) or single cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2 or TNF⍺). For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA was performed followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test (**** p < 0.0001, *** p < 0.001, * p < 0.05) compared to the split vaccine. a and b are representative data from 6 to 8 mice/group from two studies

Back to article page