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Immunity & Ageing: 20th Anniversary

2024 marks the 20 year anniversary since Immunity & Ageing published its first article. To mark this occasion, we're looking back at the journal's milestone achievements and highlighting some of the best content from the past few years.

Editor's Pick : Immune cell phenotypes and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study

Ragab, A.A.Y., Doyle, M.F., Chen, J. et al.
Immune cell phenotypes and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study. Immun Ageing 21, 37 (2024)

Evidence from longitudinal studies continues to accumulate in support of immune risk profiles predicting all-cause mortality in humans. Now 19-year follow-up data on 996 participants (mean age 62 years, range 40 to 88), from the iconic Framingham Heart Study suggest that higher Tc17/CD8+ Treg and CD4/CD8 ratios are associated with lower all-cause mortality. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cancer, age, sex, and CMV serostatus, immune cell phenotypes were no longer associated with mortality. Strikingly, even after this adjustment, the classic inflammageing indicator IL-6 remained significantly associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

All Editor's Picks

Micronutrients and immune ageing

Edited by:
Dr. Hammad Ullah, PhD, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

Submission Status: Open until 6 December 2024

Considerations and Approaches for Cancer Immunotherapy in the Aging Host

Edited by:
Harshita B. Gupta, PhD, MS, University of Texas Health San Antonio, USA

Submission Status: Open until 2 December 2024

Obesity and Immunosenescence

Edited by:
Daniela Frasca: University of Miami, USA

Submission Status: Open until 30 September 2024

Topical Collection: Mice, women and men: species and sex differences in the role of the thymus in immunosenescence

New Content ItemGuest Editor:
Donald Palmer: University of London, UK

Image credit: Ivy Mallick

Topical Collection: Immunobiology of Human Space Exploration

New Content ItemGuest Editors:
Richard J. Simpson: The University of Arizona, USA
Brian E. Crucian: NASA Johnson Space Center, USA

Space travel is associated with immune dysregulation that may increase clinical risk in future exploration crew. Prolonged orbital spaceflight missions have shown a number of immune and clinical changes that are akin to advanced human aging, including alterations to the peripheral T-cell and NK-cell compartments, impairments in humoral immunity, latent viral reactivation, and persistent hypersensitivity. We seek articles that are focused on immune dysregulation during spaceflight and spaceflight analog environments, particularly when immunological endpoints that overlap with human aging are considered. Articles focused on the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to mitigate the risk of immune dysregulation during space travel are particularly encouraged.

Topical Collection: Immunobiology of the mucosal system

New Content ItemGuest Editor:
Anshu Agrawal: University of California, USA

Mucosal immunology is the study of immune responses of the oral, lung, intestine and urogenital areas of the body. The mucosal environment as well the microbiome interacts with the immune system to have a profound effect. Advancing age is characterized by susceptibility to infections and other diseases of the mucosa. An example is the recent COVID-19 pandemic. We seek articles on all aspects of mucosal immunology and aging including increase incidence in infectious diseases, changes in the microbiome, mucosal vaccines and delivery systems, age-related changes in regeneration and repair mechanisms as well as clinical articles. Articles may be commentaries or original research.

Topical collection: Comparative Immunosenescence

New Content ItemGuest Editor:
Graham Pawelec: University of Tübingen, Germany

Our knowledge of the negative consequences of the important differences of immune function seen in younger and older individuals is scarce, and mostly limited to humans, mice and to some extent monkeys and companion animals. However, comparative studies of the health impacts of immune ageing in other species, potentially including invertebrates, and in kingdoms other than animals, are scarcer still, but might shed light on some common features required for survival in a dangerous world. This Topical Collection accordingly aims to solicit papers on any aspect of immune ageing in species other than humans and mice. Reviews, original articles, commentaries, hypotheses and opinion pieces are all very welcome.

Topical Collection: Towards Biomarkers of Human Immunosenescence

New Content ItemGuest Editors:
Ruth R. Montgomery:
Yale University
Alan Cohen: USA University of Sherbrooke, Canada

‘Immunosenescence’ describes the multifactorial changes in the immune system with advanced age. To increase our understanding of the conditions of immune function in aging, the focus of this special issue is to document biomarkers of age-related immune conditions. We seek articles which highlight validated biomarkers or approaches to quantify immune aging, clarify heterogeneity among changes that accrue in aging, identify mechanisms underlying the altered state, or highlight where interventions may serve to improve health.  Articles may be commentaries or original research. Articles especially welcomed will address conceptual topics, detectable biomarkers, or clinical implications.

Topical Collection: Immune response to Influenza virus and vaccine in old adults

New Content ItemGuest Editors:
Sean X. Leng: 
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Albert Shaw: Yale School of Medicine, USA

Seasonal influenza is a common respiratory infection that causes significant health burden worldwide, particularly in older adults. Studies of altered immune functions with aging in human and animal model systems have identified underlying mechanisms and offer potential therapeutic insights. Vaccination is an effective tool to reduce and even prevent severe infection and its complications. Recent improvements in vaccine design enhance vaccine efficacy for at-risk older adults. Understanding innate, humoral and cellular conditions of the host immune system that contribute to severe infection and to age-associated alterations in vaccine response represent important steps in reducing the disease burden of influenza for the growing older adult population.

Announcing the launch of In Review

Immunity & Ageing, in partnership with Research Square, is now offering In Review. Authors choosing this free optional service will be able to:

  • Share their work with fellow researchers to read, comment on, and cite even before publication
  • Showcase their work to funders and others with a citable DOI while it is still under review
  • Track their manuscript - including seeing when reviewers are invited, and when reports are received 



Topical collection
Micronutrients and immune ageing
Hammad Ullah

Topical collection
Considerations and Approaches for Cancer Immunotherapy in the Aging Host
Harshita B. Gupta


Topical collection
Obesity and Immunosenescence
Daniela Frasca

Topical collection
Mice, women and men: species and sex differences in the role of the thymus in immunosenescence
Donald Palmer


Topical collection
Immunobiology of Human Space Exploration
Brian E. Crucian and Richard J. Simpson

Topical collection
Immunobiology of the mucosal system
Anshu Agrawal

Topical collection
Comparative Immunosenescence
Graham Pawelec

Topical collection
Neuroimmunology and Ageing
Moisés E. Bauer and Roberto Paganelli

Topical collection
Immune response to Influenza virus and vaccine in old adults
Sean X. Leng and Albert Shaw


Topical collection
Towards Biomarkers of Human Immunosenescense
Ruth Montgomery and Alan Cohen


Topical collection
Immunity, Metabolism and Aging
Daniela Frasca and Andrea Cossarizza


Topical collection
Nutrigerontology: a key for achieving successful ageing and longevity
Collection published: April/ May 2016


Cross journal collection
Day of Immunology 2015
Collection published: 28 April 2015


Topical collection
Positive biology: the centenarian lesson
Immunity & Ageing
Collection published: 23 April 2012

Aims and scope

The increasing realization that immune ageing and organismal ageing are intimately inter-related puts the immune system at centre-stage in our efforts to understand and manipulate the ageing process.

Immunity & Ageing provides a specific conduit for dissemination of new knowledge in this increasingly important arena. Published since 2004, the journal is a specialist open access journal dedicated to promulgating information on the impact of ageing on immune systems, the influence of aged immune systems on organismal well-being and longevity, age-associated diseases which have at least partly an immune etiology, and potential immune interventions to increase health span.

Immunity & Ageing welcomes submissions dealing with any aspect of ageing in human and model organisms that relates to immune function.  Papers dealing with any aspect of ageing that does not include a substantial immunological element will not be considered.

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About the Editors-in-Chief

Professor Graham Pawelec, MA, PhD (Cantab), University of Tübingen, Germany

Graham Pawelec is Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Tübingen, Germany, where he led the Tübingen Ageing and Tumour Immunology (TATI) group from 1999 to 2017. He is currently affiliated with the Health Sciences North Research Institute of Canada, Sudbury, ON, and is a Visiting Professor at Nottingham Trent University, King´s College London, and Manchester University, UK. His research interests remain centered on immunogerontology in the context of cancer immunology and immunotherapy, and vaccination.

Professor Daniela Frasca, BSc (Biology), PhD, University of Miami, USA

Daniela Frasca is Research Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, and Visiting Professor at the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, UNIFESP, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Her work focuses on the mechanisms by which obesity induces defects in humoral immunity and B cell function similar to those induced by aging in both mice and humans, as well as on the metabolic regulation of humoral immunity in elderly individuals with inflammatory conditions, primarily autoimmunity and cancer.

Founding Editor

Professor Calogero Caruso MD Professor of General Pathology and Director of Palermo University Medical School “Ippocrate”

Whether your interests are immunological aspects of ageing, age-related diseases and longevity, this journal can serve as an appropriate venue.

Annual Journal Metrics

  • Citation Impact 2023
    Journal Impact Factor: 5.2
    5-year Journal Impact Factor: 6.4
    Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 1.062
    SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 1.999

    Speed 2023
    Submission to first editorial decision (median days): 2
    Submission to acceptance (median days): 102

    Usage 2023
    Downloads: 548,376
    Altmetric mentions: 1,115