Sadighi Akha AA. Aging and the immune system: an overview. J Immunol Methods. 2018;463:21–6.
Morrisette-Thomas V, Cohen AA, Fülöp T, Riesco É, Legault V, Li Q, et al. Inflamm-aging does not simply reflect increases in pro-inflammatory markers. Mech Ageing Dev. 2014;139:49–57.
Ferrucci L, Fabbri E. Inflammageing: chronic inflammation in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and frailty. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018;15(9):505–22.
Ershler WB, Keller ET. Age-associated increased interleukin-6 gene expression, late-life diseases, and frailty. Annu Rev Med. 2000;51:245–70.
Varadhan R, Yao W, Matteini A, Beamer BA, Xue Q-L, Yang H, et al. Simple biologically informed inflammatory index of two serum cytokines predicts 10 year all-cause mortality in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(2):165–73.
Furman D, Campisi J, Verdin E, Carrera-Bastos P, Targ S, Franceschi C, et al. Chronic inflammation in the etiology of disease across the life span. Nat Med. 2019;25(12):1822–32.
Trayhurn P. Endocrine and signalling role of adipose tissue: new perspectives on fat. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;184(4):285–93.
Zamboni M, Rossi AP, Fantin F, Zamboni G, Chirumbolo S, Zoico E, et al. Adipose tissue, diet and aging. Mech Ageing Dev. 2014;136–137:129–37.
Franceschi C, Garagnani P, Vitale G, Capri M, Salvioli S. Inflammaging and “Garb-aging.”. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017;28(3):199–212.
Santoro A, Spinelli CC, Martucciello S, Nori SL, Capunzo M, Puca AA, et al. Innate immunity and cellular senescence: the good and the bad in the developmental and aged brain. J Leukoc Biol. 2018;103(3):509–24.
Kumari R, Jat P. Mechanisms of cellular senescence: cell cycle arrest and senescence associated secretory phenotype. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;29(9):645593.
Salminen A, Kauppinen A, Kaarniranta K. Emerging role of NF-κB signaling in the induction of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Cell Signal. 2012;24(4):835–45.
Shen-Orr SS, Furman D, Kidd BA, Hadad F, Lovelace P, Huang Y-W, et al. Defective signaling in the JAK-STAT pathway tracks with chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk in aging humans. Cell Syst. 2016;3(4):374–384.e4.
Agrawal A, Tay J, Ton S, Agrawal S, Gupta S. Increased reactivity of dendritic cells from aged subjects to self-antigen, the human DNA. J Immunol. 2009;182(2):1138–45.
Agrawal A, Agrawal S, Cao J-N, Su H, Osann K, Gupta S. Altered innate immune functioning of dendritic cells in elderly humans: a role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-signaling pathway. J Immunol. 2007;178(11):6912–22.
Wenisch C, Patruta S, Daxböck F, Krause R, Hörl W. Effect of age on human neutrophil function. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;67(1):40–5.
Min H, Montecino-Rodriguez E, Dorshkind K. Effects of aging on early B- and T-cell development. Immunol Rev. 2005;205(1):7–17.
Palmer DB. The effect of age on thymic function. Front Immunol. 2013;4:316.
Gruver AL, Hudson LL, Sempowski GD. Immunosenescence of ageing. J Pathol. 2007 Jan;211(2):144–56.
Aspinall R, Andrew D. Thymic involution in aging. J Clin Immunol. 2000;20(4):250–6.
Kendall MD, Johnson HR, Singh J. The weight of the human thymus gland at necropsy. J Anat. 1980;131(Pt 3):483–97.
Fukunaga T, Mizoi Y, Yamashita A, Yamada M, Yamamoto Y, Tatsuno Y, et al. Thymus of abused/neglected children. Forensic Sci Int. 1992;53(1):69–79.
Tanegashima A, Yamamoto H, Yada I, Fukunaga T. Estimation of stress in child neglect from thymic involution. Forensic Sci Int. 1999;101(1):55–63.
Koch S, Larbi A, Derhovanessian E, Ozcelik D, Naumova E, Pawelec G. Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets in young and old people. Immun Ageing. 2008;5:6.
Tu W, Rao S. Mechanisms underlying T cell Immunosenescence: aging and cytomegalovirus infection. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:2111.
Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, Brammer L, Cox N, Anderson LJ, et al. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA. 2003;289(2):179–86.
Wang C, Liu Y, Xu LT, Jackson KJL, Roskin KM, Pham TD, et al. Effects of aging, cytomegalovirus infection, and EBV infection on human B cell repertoires. J Immunol. 2014;192(2):603–11.
Yoshikawa TT. Epidemiology and unique aspects of aging and infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30(6):931–3.
Schietinger A, Greenberg PD. Tolerance and exhaustion: defining mechanisms of T cell dysfunction. Trends Immunol. 2014;35(2):51–60.
Cakala-Jakimowicz M, Kolodziej-Wojnar P, Puzianowska-Kuznicka M. Aging-related cellular, structural and functional changes in the lymph nodes: a significant component of Immunosenescence? An overview. Cells. 2021;10(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113148.
von Andrian UH, Mempel TR. Homing and cellular traffic in lymph nodes. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3(11):867–78.
Girard J-P, Moussion C, Förster R. HEVs, lymphatics and homeostatic immune cell trafficking in lymph nodes. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12(11):762–73.
Paget J, Spreeuwenberg P, Charu V, Taylor RJ, Iuliano AD, Bresee J, et al. Global mortality associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: new burden estimates and predictors from the GLaMOR project. J Glob Health. 2019;9(2):020421.
CDC. Risk for COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death by age group: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2022. [cited 2022 Apr 8]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-age.html
Freer G, Pistello M. Varicella-zoster virus infection: natural history, clinical manifestations, immunity and current and future vaccination strategies. New Microbiol. 2018;41(2):95–105.
Chen WH, Kozlovsky BF, Effros RB, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Edelman R, Sztein MB. Vaccination in the elderly: an immunological perspective. Trends Immunol. 2009;30(7):351–9.
Zhou X, McElhaney JE. Age-related changes in memory and effector T cells responding to influenza a/H3N2 and pandemic a/H1N1 strains in humans. Vaccine. 2011;29(11):2169–77.
Goronzy JJ, Fulbright JW, Crowson CS, Poland GA, O’Fallon WM, Weyand CM. Value of immunological markers in predicting responsiveness to influenza vaccination in elderly individuals. J Virol. 2001;75(24):12182–7.
Trzonkowski P, Myśliwska J, Pawelec G, Myśliwski A. From bench to bedside and back: the SENIEUR protocol and the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the elderly. Biogerontology. 2009;10(1):83–94.
DiazGranados CA, Dunning AJ, Robertson CA, Talbot HK, Landolfi V, Greenberg DP. Efficacy and immunogenicity of high-dose influenza vaccine in older adults by age, comorbidities, and frailty. Vaccine. 2015;33(36):4565–71.
DiazGranados CA, Dunning AJ, Kimmel M, Kirby D, Treanor J, Collins A, et al. Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(7):635–45.
Izurieta HS, Chillarige Y, Kelman J, Wei Y, Lu Y, Xu W, et al. Relative effectiveness of influenza vaccines among the United States elderly, 2018-2019. J Infect Dis. 2020;222(2):278–87.
Fourati S, Cristescu R, Loboda A, Talla A, Filali A, Railkar R, et al. Pre-vaccination inflammation and B-cell signalling predict age-related hyporesponse to hepatitis B vaccination. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10369.
Wang L, Verschuuren EAM, Paap D, Rondaan C, Raveling-Eelsing E, Liu S, et al. Ageing of immune system and response to a live-attenuated herpes zoster vaccine in lung transplant candidates. Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030202.
Hodgson SH, Mansatta K, Mallett G, Harris V, Emary KRW, Pollard AJ. What defines an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine? A review of the challenges assessing the clinical efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(2):e26–35.
Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(27):2603–15.
Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403–16.
Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, Cárdenas V, Shukarev G, Grinsztejn B, et al. Final analysis of efficacy and safety of single-dose Ad26.COV2.S. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(9):847–60.
Falsey AR, Sobieszczyk ME, Hirsch I, Sproule S, Robb ML, Corey L, et al. Phase 3 safety and efficacy of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) Covid-19 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(25):2348–60.
Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, Cárdenas V, Shukarev G, Grinsztejn B, et al. Safety and efficacy of single-dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(23):2187–201.
Yelin I, Katz R, Herzel E, Berman-Zilberstein T, Ben-Tov A, Kuint J, et al. Associations of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness with patient age and comorbidities. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.16.21253686.
Ward H, Whitaker M, Flower B, Tang SN, Atchison C, Darzi A, et al. Population antibody responses following COVID-19 vaccination in 212,102 individuals. Nat Commun. 2022;13(1):907.
Rosenberg ES, Dorabawila V, Easton D, Bauer UE, Kumar J, Hoen R, et al. Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness in New York state. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(2):116–27.
Collier DA, Ferreira IATM, Kotagiri P, Datir RP, Lim EY, Touizer E, et al. Age-related immune response heterogeneity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2. Nature. 2021;596(7872):417–22.
Müller L, Andrée M, Moskorz W, Drexler I, Walotka L, Grothmann R, et al. Age-dependent immune response to the Biontech/Pfizer BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab381.
Schwarz T, Tober-Lau P, Hillus D, Helbig ET, Lippert LJ, Thibeault C, et al. Delayed antibody and T-cell response to BNT162b2 vaccination in the elderly. Germany Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(8):2174–8.
Canaday DH, Carias L, Oyebanji OA. Reduced BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine response in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–naive nursing home residents. Clin Infect Dis. 2021; Available from: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-abstract/73/11/2112/6276391.
Breznik JA, Zhang A, Huynh A, Miller MS, Nazy I, Bowdish DME, et al. Antibody responses 3-5 months post-vaccination with mRNA-1273 or BNT163b2 in nursing home residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2021;22(12):2512–4.
Demaret J, Corroyer-Simovic B, Alidjinou EK, Goffard A, Trauet J, Miczek S, et al. Impaired functional T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 after two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in older people. Front Immunol. 2021;12:778679.
Tut G, Lancaster T, Krutikov M, Sylla P, Bone D, Kaur N, et al. Profile of humoral and cellular immune responses to single doses of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines in residents and staff within residential care homes (VIVALDI): an observational study. Lancet Healthy Longevity. 2021;2:e544–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2666-7568(21)00168-9.
Fendler A, Shepherd STC, Au L, Wilkinson KA, Wu M, Byrne F, et al. Adaptive immunity and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern following vaccination in patients with cancer: the CAPTURE study. Nat Cancer. 2021;2(12):1305–20.
Naranbhai V, St. Denis KJ, Lam EC, Ofoman O, Garcia-Beltran WF, Mairena CB, et al. Neutralization breadth of SARS-CoV-2 viral variants following primary series and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer. Cancer Cell. 2022;40:103–108.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.12.002.
Bagacean C, Letestu R, Al-Nawakil C, Brichler S, Lévy V, Sritharan N, et al. Humoral response to mRNA anti-COVID-19 vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood Adv. 2022;6(1):207–11.
Herishanu Y, Avivi I, Aharon A, Shefer G, Levi S, Bronstein Y, et al. Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood Am Soc Hematol. 2021;137(23):3165–73.
Kamar N, Abravanel F, Marion O, Couat C, Izopet J, Del Bello A. Three doses of an mRNA covid-19 vaccine in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(7):661–2.
Danthu C, Hantz S, Dahlem A, Duval M, Ba B, Guibbert M, et al. Humoral response after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in a cohort of hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2021;32(9):2153–8.
Rozen-Zvi B, Yahav D, Agur T, Zingerman B, Ben-Zvi H, Atamna A, et al. Antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine among kidney transplant recipients: a prospective cohort study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(8):1173.e1–4.
Grupper A, Rabinowich L, Schwartz D, Schwartz IF, Ben-Yehoyada M, Shashar M, et al. Reduced humoral response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine in kidney transplant recipients without prior exposure to the virus. Am J Transplant. 2021;21(8):2719–26.
Zitt E, Davidovic T, Schimpf J, Abbassi-Nik A, Mutschlechner B, Ulmer H, et al. The safety and immunogenicity of the mRNA-BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Front Immunol. 2021;12:704773.
Anand S, Montez-Rath ME, Han J, Garcia P, Cadden L, Hunsader P, et al. Antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients receiving dialysis. medRxiv. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.06.21256768.
Agur T, Ben-Dor N, Goldman S, Lichtenberg S, Herman-Edelstein M, Yahav D, et al. Antibody response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among dialysis patients - a prospectivecohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021;36(7):1347–9.
Jahn M, Korth J, Dorsch O, Anastasiou OE, Sorge-Hädicke B, Tyczynski B, et al. Humoral response to SARS-CoV-2-vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in patients on hemodialysis. Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040360.
Attias P, Sakhi H, Rieu P, Soorkia A, Assayag D, Bouhroum S, et al. Antibody response to the BNT162b2 vaccine in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2021;99(6):1490–2.
Grupper A, Sharon N, Finn T, Cohen R, Israel M, Agbaria A, et al. Humoral response to the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2021. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03500321.
Rahav G, Lustig Y, Lavee J, Benjamini O, Magen H, Hod T, et al. BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised patients: a prospective cohort study. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;41(101158):101158.
Haidar G, Agha M, Bilderback A, Lukanski A, Linstrum K, Troyan R, et al. Prospective evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine responses across a broad spectrum of immunocompromising conditions: the COVICS study. Clin Infect Dis. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac103.
Singh P, Tuck C, Gibson PR, Chey WD. Factors affecting initial humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Am J Gastroenterol. 2022;117(3):462–9.
Kennedy NA, Lin S, Goodhand JR, Chanchlani N, Hamilton B, Bewshea C, et al. Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. bioRxiv medRxiv. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.25.21254335.
Alexander JL, Kennedy NA, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin A, Castro Seoane R, et al. COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (VIP): a multicentre, prospective, case-control study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022;7(4):342–52.
Naaber P, Tserel L, Kangro K, Sepp E, Jürjenson V, Adamson A, et al. Dynamics of antibody response to BNT162b2 vaccine after six months: a longitudinal prospective study. Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2021;10(100208):100208.
Pegu A, O’Connell S, Schmidt SD, O’Dell S, Talana CA, Lai L, et al. Durability of mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Science. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abj4176.
Doria-Rose N, Suthar MS, Makowski M, O’Connell S, McDermott AB, Flach B, et al. Antibody persistence through 6 months after the second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(23):2259–61.
Mateus J, Dan JM, Zhang Z, Rydyznski Moderbacher C, Lammers M, Goodwin B, et al. Low-dose mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine generates durable memory enhanced by cross-reactive T cells. Science. 2021;374(6566):eabj9853. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abj9853.
Lustig Y, Sapir E, Regev-Yochay G, Cohen C, Fluss R, Olmer L, et al. BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine and correlates of humoral immune responses and dynamics: a prospective, single-centre, longitudinal cohort study in health-care workers. Lancet Respir Med. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00220-4.
Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Widge AT, Jackson LA, Roberts PC, Makhene M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(25):2427–38.
Chu L, McPhee R, Huang W, Bennett H, Pajon R, Nestorova B, et al. A preliminary report of a randomized controlled phase 2 trial of the safety and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Vaccine. 2021;39(20):2791–9.
Asano M, Okada H, Itoh Y, Hirata H, Ishikawa K, Yoshida E, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) against SARS-CoV-2 in Japan: a double-blind, randomized controlled phase 1/2 trial. Int J Infect Dis. 2022;114:165–74.
Robbiani DF, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Wang Z, Cho A, et al. Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals. Nature. 2020;584(7821):437–42.
Hansen CH, Michlmayr D, Gubbels SM, Mølbak K, Ethelberg S. Assessment of protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study. Lancet. 2021;397(10280):1204–12.
Krammer F. Correlates of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lancet. 2021;397(10283):1421–3.
Feng S, Phillips DJ, White T, Sayal H, Aley PK, Bibi S, et al. Correlates of protection against symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Med. 2021;27(11):2032–40.
Keeton R, Tincho MB, Ngomti A, Baguma R, Benede N, Suzuki A, et al. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike cross-recognize omicron. Nature. 2022;603(7901):488–92.
Spicer KB, Glick C, Cavanaugh AM, Thoroughman D. Protective immunity after natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - Kentucky, USA, 2020. Int J Infect Dis. 2022;114:21–8.
Nordström P, Ballin M, Nordström A. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and COVID-19 hospitalisation in individuals with natural and hybrid immunity: a retrospective, total population cohort study in Sweden. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022;22(6):781–90.
Murillo-Zamora E, Mendoza-Cano O, Delgado-Enciso I, Hernandez-Suarez CM. Predictors of severe symptomatic laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Public Health. 2021;193:113–5.
Goldberg Y, Mandel M, Bar-On YM, Bodenheimer O, Freedman LS, Ash N, et al. Protection and waning of natural and hybrid immunity to SARS-CoV-2. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(23):2201–12.
Han LKM, Verhoeven JE, Tyrka AR, Penninx BWJH, Wolkowitz OM, Månsson KNT, et al. Accelerating research on biological aging and mental health: current challenges and future directions. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019;5(106):293–311.
Wolkowitz OM, Epel ES, Reus VI, Mellon SH. Depression gets old fast: do stress and depression accelerate cell aging? Depress Anxiety. 2010;27(4):327–38.
Evans DL, Charney DS, Lewis L, Golden RN, Gorman JM, Krishnan KRR, et al. Mood disorders in the medically ill: scientific review and recommendations. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58(3):175–89.
Cuijpers P, Vogelzangs N, Twisk J, Kleiboer A, Li J, Penninx BW. Comprehensive meta-analysis of excess mortality in depression in the general community versus patients with specific illnesses. Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171(4):453–62.
Walker ER, McGee RE, Druss BG. Mortality in mental disorders and global disease burden implications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiat. 2015;72(4):334–41.
Chesney E, Goodwin GM, Fazel S. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review. World Psychiatry. 2014;13(2):153–60.
Darrow SM, Verhoeven JE, Révész D, Lindqvist D, Penninx BWJH, Delucchi KL, et al. The association between psychiatric disorders and telomere length: a meta-analysis involving 14,827 persons. Psychosom Med. 2016;78(7):776–87.
Ridout KK, Ridout SJ, Price LH, Sen S, Tyrka AR. Depression and telomere length: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;191:237–47.
Lu AT, Quach A, Wilson JG, Reiner AP, Aviv A, Raj K, et al. DNA methylation GrimAge strongly predicts lifespan and healthspan. Aging. 2019;11(2):303–27.
Protsenko E, Yang R, Nier B, Reus V, Hammamieh R, Rampersaud R, et al. “GrimAge,” an epigenetic predictor of mortality, is accelerated in major depressive disorder. Transl Psychiatry. 2021;11(1):193.
Hamlat EJ, Prather AA, Horvath S, Belsky J, Epel ES. Early life adversity, pubertal timing, and epigenetic age acceleration in adulthood. Dev Psychobiol. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.22085.
Cole JJ, McColl A, Shaw R, Lynall M-E, Cowen PJ, de Boer P, et al. No evidence for differential gene expression in major depressive disorder PBMCs, but robust evidence of elevated biological ageing. Transl Psychiatry. 2021;11(1):404.
Diniz BS, Reynolds CFIII, Sibille E, Bot M, Penninx BWJH. Major depression and enhanced molecular senescence abnormalities in young and middle-aged adults. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9(1):198.
Han LKM, Dinga R, Hahn T, Ching CRK, Eyler LT, Aftanas L, et al. Brain aging in major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA major depressive disorder working group. Mol Psychiatry. 2021;26(9):5124–39.
Ballester PL, Romano MT, de Azevedo CT, Hassel S, Strother SC, Kennedy SH, et al. Brain age in mood and psychotic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2022;145(1):42–55.
Ford BN, Yolken RH, Dickerson FB, Teague TK, Irwin MR, Paulus MP, et al. Reduced immunity to measles in adults with major depressive disorder. Psychol Med. 2019;49(2):243–9.
Irwin MR, Levin MJ, Carrillo C, Olmstead R, Lucko A, Lang N, et al. Major depressive disorder and immunity to varicella-zoster virus in the elderly. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25(4):759–66.
Irwin MR, Levin MJ, Laudenslager ML, Olmstead R, Lucko A, Lang N, et al. Varicella zoster virus-specific immune responses to a herpes zoster vaccine in elderly recipients with major depression and the impact of antidepressant medications. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(8):1085–93.
Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Oxman MN. Augmenting immune responses to varicella zoster virus in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial of tai chi. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(4):511–7.
Bauer ME, Jeckel CMM, Luz C. The role of stress factors during aging of the immune system. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1153:139–52.
Lindqvist D, Epel ES, Mellon SH, Penninx BW, Révész D, Verhoeven JE, et al. Psychiatric disorders and leukocyte telomere length: underlying mechanisms linking mental illness with cellular aging. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;55:333–64.
Wolkowitz OM, Epel ES, Mellon S. When blue turns to grey: do stress and depression accelerate cell aging? World J Biol Psychiatry. 2008;9(1):2–5.
Cole SW. The conserved transcriptional response to adversity. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2019;28:31–7.
Ford BN, Yolken RH, Aupperle RL, Teague TK, Irwin MR, Paulus MP, et al. Association of early-life stress with cytomegalovirus infection in adults with major depressive disorder. JAMA Psychiat. 2019;76(5):545–7.
Wikby A, Ferguson F, Forsey R, Thompson J, Strindhall J, Löfgren S, et al. An immune risk phenotype, cognitive impairment, and survival in very late life: impact of allostatic load in Swedish octogenarian and nonagenarian humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(5):556–65.
Ford BN, Teague TK, Bayouth M, Yolken RH, Bodurka J, Irwin MR, et al. Diagnosis-independent loss of T-cell costimulatory molecules in individuals with cytomegalovirus infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:795–803.
Zheng H, Ford BN, Kuplicki R, Burrows K, Hunt PW, Bodurka J, et al. Association between cytomegalovirus infection, reduced gray matter volume, and resting-state functional hypoconnectivity in major depressive disorder: a replication and extension. Transl Psychiatry. 2021;11(1):464.
Zheng H, Ford BN, Bergamino M, Kuplicki R, Tulsa 1000 Investigators, Hunt PW, et al. A hidden menace? Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with reduced cortical gray matter volume in major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2021;26(8):4234–44. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00932-y.
Zheng H, Bergamino M, Ford BN, Kuplicki R, Yeh F-C, Bodurka J, et al. Replicable association between human cytomegalovirus infection and reduced white matter fractional anisotropy in major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2021;46(5):928–38. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-00971-1.
Irwin MR. Sleep and inflammation in resilient aging. Interface Focus. 2014;4(5):20140009.
Irwin MR. Sleep and inflammation: partners in sickness and in health. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0190-z.
Besedovsky L, Lange T, Born J. Sleep and immune function. Pflugers Arch. 2012;463(1):121–37.
Benedict C, Brytting M, Markström A, Broman J-E, Schiöth HB. Acute sleep deprivation has no lasting effects on the human antibody titer response following a novel influenza a H1N1 virus vaccination. BMC Immunol. 2012;13:1.
Prather AA, Pressman SD, Miller GE, Cohen S. Temporal links between self-reported sleep and antibody responses to the influenza vaccine. Int J Behav Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-020-09879-4.
Prather AA, Janicki-Deverts D, Hall MH, Cohen S. Behaviorally assessed sleep and susceptibility to the common cold. Sleep. 2015;38(9):1353–9.
Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Janicki-Deverts D, Turner RB. Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(1):62–7.
Jackowska M, Hamer M, Carvalho LA, Erusalimsky JD, Butcher L, Steptoe A. Short sleep duration is associated with shorter telomere length in healthy men: findings from the Whitehall II cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47292.
Prather AA, Puterman E, Lin J, O’Donovan A, Krauss J, Tomiyama AJ, et al. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in midlife women with poor sleep quality. J Aging Res. 2011;2011:721390.
Liang G, Schernhammer E, Qi L, Gao X, De Vivo I, Han J. Associations between rotating night shifts, sleep duration, and telomere length in women. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23462.
Prather AA, Gurfein B, Moran P, Daubenmier J, Acree M, Bacchetti P, et al. Tired telomeres: poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;47:155–62.
Carroll JE, Esquivel S, Goldberg A, Seeman TE, Effros RB, Dock J, et al. Insomnia and telomere length in older adults. Sleep. 2016;39(3):559–64.
Carroll JE, Irwin MR, Levine M, Seeman TE, Absher D, Assimes T, et al. Epigenetic aging and immune senescence in women with insomnia symptoms: findings from the Women’s health initiative study. Biol Psychiatry. 2017;81(2):136–44.
Teixeira AL, Krause TM, Ghosh L, Shahani L, Machado-Vieira R, Lane SD, et al. Analysis of COVID-19 infection and mortality among patients with psychiatric disorders, 2020. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(11):e2134969.
Vai B, Mazza MG, Delli Colli C, Foiselle M, Allen B, Benedetti F, et al. Mental disorders and risk of COVID-19-related mortality, hospitalisation, and intensive care unit admission: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2021;8(9):797–812.
Fond G, Nemani K, Etchecopar-Etchart D, Loundou A, Goff DC, Lee SW, et al. Association between mental health disorders and mortality among patients with COVID-19 in 7 countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiat. 2021;78(11):1208–17.
Ceban F, Nogo D, Carvalho IP, Lee Y, Nasri F, Xiong J, et al. Association between mood disorders and risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiat. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.1818.
De Hert M, Mazereel V, Stroobants M, De Picker L, Van Assche K, Detraux J. COVID-19-related mortality risk in people with severe mental illness: a systematic and critical review. Front Psych. 2021;12:798554.
Cohen S, Tyrrell DA, Smith AP. Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(9):606–12.
Lindekilde N, Scheuer SH, Rutters F, Knudsen L, Lasgaard M, Rubin KH, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in psychiatric disorders: an umbrella review with meta-analysis of 245 observational studies from 32 systematic reviews. Diabetologia. 2022;65(3):440–56.
Goldstein JM, Hale T, Foster SL, Tobet SA, Handa RJ. Sex differences in major depression and comorbidity of cardiometabolic disorders: impact of prenatal stress and immune exposures. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019;44(1):59–70.
Jeppesen R, Benros ME. Autoimmune diseases and psychotic disorders. Front Psych. 2019;10:131.
Miller AH, Raison CL. The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;16(1):22–34.
Gold SM, Köhler-Forsberg O, Moss-Morris R, Mehnert A, Miranda JJ, Bullinger M, et al. Comorbid depression in medical diseases. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020;6(1):69.
CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Preliminary estimates of the prevalence of selected underlying health conditions among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 - United States, February 12-March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(13):382–6.
Rosenthal N, Cao Z, Gundrum J, Sianis J, Safo S. Risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality in a US national sample of patients with COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(12):e2029058.
Zhang F, Xiong Y, Wei Y, Hu Y, Wang F, Li G, et al. Obesity predisposes to the risk of higher mortality in young COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol. 2020;92(11):2536–42.
Ye J, Wen Y, Sun X, Chu X, Li P, Cheng B, et al. Socioeconomic deprivation index is associated with psychiatric disorders: an observational and genome-wide gene-by-environment interaction analysis in the UK biobank cohort. Biol Psychiatry. 2021;89(9):888–95.
Gavin AR, Walton E, Chae DH, Alegria M, Jackson JS, Takeuchi D. The associations between socio-economic status and major depressive disorder among Blacks, Latinos, Asians and non-Hispanic whites: findings from the collaborative psychiatric epidemiology studies. Psychol Med. 2010;40(1):51–61.
Aldridge RW, Story A, Hwang SW, Nordentoft M, Luchenski SA, Hartwell G, et al. Morbidity and mortality in homeless individuals, prisoners, sex workers, and individuals with substance use disorders in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018;391(10117):241–50.
McMaughan DJ, Oloruntoba O, Smith ML. Socioeconomic status and access to healthcare: interrelated drivers for healthy aging. Front Public Health. 2020;8:231.
Mannoh I, Hussien M, Commodore-Mensah Y, Michos ED. Impact of social determinants of health on cardiovascular disease prevention. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2021;36(5):572–9.
Lin C-W, Chang L-C, Ma T, Oh H, French B, Puralewski R, et al. Older molecular brain age in severe mental illness. Mol Psychiatry. 2021;26(7):3646–56.
Fries GR, Zamzow MJ, Andrews T, Pink O, Scaini G, Quevedo J. Accelerated aging in bipolar disorder: a comprehensive review of molecular findings and their clinical implications. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.01.035.
Katzenschlager S, Zimmer AJ, Gottschalk C, Grafeneder J, Schmitz S, Kraker S, et al. Can we predict the severe course of COVID-19 - a systematic review and meta-analysis of indicators of clinical outcome? PLoS One. 2021;16(7):e0255154.
Booth A, Reed AB, Ponzo S, Yassaee A, Aral M, Plans D, et al. Population risk factors for severe disease and mortality in COVID-19: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(3):e0247461.
Dickerson F, Schroeder J, Katsafanas E, Khushalani S, Origoni AE, Savage C, et al. Cigarette smoking by patients with serious mental illness, 1999-2016: an increasing disparity. Psychiatr Serv. 2018;69(2):147–53.
Wang QQ, Kaelber DC, Xu R, Volkow ND. COVID-19 risk and outcomes in patients with substance use disorders: analyses from electronic health records in the United States. Mol Psychiatry. 2021;26(1):30–9.
Chastin SFM, Abaraogu U, Bourgois JG, Dall PM, Darnborough J, Duncan E, et al. Effects of regular physical activity on the immune system, vaccination and risk of community-acquired infectious disease in the general population: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2021;51(8):1673–86.
LeRoy AS, Murdock KW, Jaremka LM, Loya A, Fagundes CP. Loneliness predicts self-reported cold symptoms after a viral challenge. Health Psychol. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000467.
Tamouza R, Krishnamoorthy R, Leboyer M. Understanding the genetic contribution of the human leukocyte antigen system to common major psychiatric disorders in a world pandemic context. Brain Behav Immun. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.09.033.
Valkanova V, Ebmeier KP, Allan CL. CRP, IL-6 and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(3):736–44.
Howren MB, Lamkin DM, Suls J. Associations of depression with C-reactive protein, IL-1, and IL-6: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(2):171–86.
Potvin S, Stip E, Sepehry AA, Gendron A, Bah R, Kouassi E. Inflammatory cytokine alterations in schizophrenia: a systematic quantitative review. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63(8):801–8.
Zhou X, Tian B, Han H-B. Serum interleukin-6 in schizophrenia: a system review and meta-analysis. Cytokine. 2021;141:155441.
Solmi M, Suresh Sharma M, Osimo EF, Fornaro M, Bortolato B, Croatto G, et al. Peripheral levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β across the mood spectrum in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of mean differences and variability. Brain Behav Immun. 2021;97:193–203.
Elahi R, Karami P, Heidary AH, Esmaeilzadeh A. An updated overview of recent advances, challenges, and clinical considerations of IL-6 signaling blockade in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Int Immunopharmacol. 2022;105:108536.
Darif D, Hammi I, Kihel A, El Idrissi SI, Guessous F, Akarid K. The pro-inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 pathogenesis: what goes wrong? Microb Pathog. 2021;153:104799.
Badenoch JB, Rengasamy ER, Watson C, Jansen K, Chakraborty S, Sundaram RD, et al. Persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Commun. 2022;4(1):fcab297.
Rogers JP, Watson CJ, Badenoch J, Cross B, Butler M, Song J, et al. Neurology and neuropsychiatry of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the early literature reveals frequent CNS manifestations and key emerging narratives. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2021;92(9):932–41.
Mertz Schou T, Joca S, Wegener G, Bay-Richter C. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 - a systematic review. Brain Behav Immun. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.07.018.
Taquet M, Geddes JR, Husain M, Luciano S, Harrison PJ. 6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records. Lancet Psychiatry. 2021;0(0) [cited 2021 Apr 7]. Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/article/S2215036621000845/abstract.
Jolliffe D, Faustini S, Holt H, Perdek N, Maltby S, Talaei M, et al. Determinants of antibody responses to two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or Bnt162b2 and a subsequent booster dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273: population-based cohort study (COVIDENCE UK). SSRN Electron J. 2022. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4031570.
Nishimi K, Neylan TC, Bertenthal D, Seal KH, O’Donovan A. Association of Psychiatric Disorders with incidence of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection among vaccinated adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(4):e227287.